SUI vs. APTOS: Blockchain Protocols Using the Move Programming Language
Crypto is constantly evolving, and it's no surprise that new and innovative projects continue to emerge. One of the latest developments in this field is the utilization of the Move programming language to design blockchain protocols. Only recently, has this led to the creation of two exciting blockchain projects – Sui and Aptos.
If you're curious to know more about these groundbreaking protocols, you've come to the right place! In this article, we'll dive into the ins and outs of Sui and Aptos, exploring how they work and what makes them unique. And the best part? You can interact with Sui and Aptos directly from your Trust Wallet!
Let's dive in and discover which of these Move-based blockchain protocols could be the right choice for either your investment or development needs.
Understanding the Move Programming Language
Move is a programming language designed to construct secure and adaptable smart contracts and customized transactions for blockchains. Originally, Move was created for Meta's Diem (formerly Libra) project, but is now used in other blockchain projects such as Aptos and Sui. Move is a platform-neutral, Rust-based programming language.
The Importance of a Specialized Language for Blockchain Technology
Move aims to address several issues that have arisen in traditional blockchain programming languages when building assets, issues with smart contracts, for example. According to the team that developed Move, current programming languages such as Solidity and Rust lack the necessary vocabulary to describe assets.
When using Solidity, for instance, assets are represented using hash tables and bytes. This makes it challenging to implement smart contracts and necessitates a lot of tinkering and customizations, which adds complexity and exposes smart contracts to weaknesses that could be exploited.
Moreover, there have been several security incidents related to programming languages, which makes it essential to prioritize asset security. According to SlowMist Hacked, approximately 200 security events in the blockchain ecosystem were made public in 2022 alone, resulting in over US$9.8 billion in losses.
Move introduces a concept called "resources", which is a customizable type. Resources provide intrinsic scarcity protections since:
- Resources can only be moved between designated program storage locations.
- Resources can never be copied.
- Resources can never be implicitly discarded.
Move's novel type system ensures that the safety measures listed above are adhered to, while also allowing programmers to customize their resource types. This makes Move a powerful tool for creating not only safe digital assets, but also for enforcing access control policies and ensuring correct business logic.
Move Language’s Key Features
The Move programming language has several key features that make it unique, including:
- First-Class Resources: Move provides a unique approach to programming by considering resources as first-class citizens in the language, meaning that resources receive priority when coding. These resources refer to anything that is limited in number but has the potential to produce value. With Move's ability to construct custom resource types, inspired by linear logic, developers can encode secure and customizable assets like coins, tokens, and NFTs.
- Account Access Control: To implement account access control, Move uses a module system with robust data abstraction. This empowers developers to create access controls that restrict specific accounts from performing certain operations on a given resource.
- Rust's Ownership System: Move also inherits Rust's ownership system to accomplish the transfer of asset ownership. This ensures that only authorized parties can perform operations on a particular resource.
- Security: Move prioritizes asset security as one of its primary design objectives. The language provides multiple security measures, such as bytecode checkers, formal verification, and static invocation to assure the security of digital assets.
Advantages of Using Move
The Move programming language comes with numerous advantages compared to traditional languages like Solidity. First, it prioritizes asset security, which is essential in the blockchain ecosystem. Additionally, Move's developer-friendly interface makes it easy to start coding, even for beginners. Furthermore, its straightforward platform-neutral virtual machine allows developers to experiment with cross-platform ideas easily.
A Closer Look at SUI
Sui Blockchain is a Layer-1 blockchain protocol created by Mysten Labs. Mysten Labs was founded by a team of five former senior executives that were the architects of Meta's Novi digital wallet program.
The primary focus of Sui is to solve Web3's issues of scalability by reducing latency in smart contract execution, increasing speed, and enhancing security to enable greater adoption of blockchain technology. Sui's smart contracts are designed around programmable objects, which can be owned by multiple people or a single user, and undergo minimal verification to achieve near-instant finality.
Sui has three core elements that work together to enable instant settlements at a low cost:
- Move language
- Parallel transaction execution
- The Sui Consensus Engine
The Move Language
The Sui network supports smart contract execution using the Sui Move language, an updated version of the Move language designed to prevent double-spending and increase security. By using the Move language, Sui is able to uses executable bytecode to securely support blockchain asset representation and overcome some of the imperfections of existing programming languages like Solidity.
Parallel transaction execution
Parallel transaction execution is one of the most significant innovations that Sui brings to the table. It processes transactions in parallel, allowing for near-instant finality and reducing the time it takes to execute smart contracts. During tests, the Sui network has been able to process 120,000 transactions in a single second, far exceeding the 15 transactions per second that the Ethereum blockchain commonly manages to handle.
The Sui Consensus Engine
The Sui Consensus Engine is a directed acyclic graph (DAG). It uses Bullshark and Narwhal as mempools. Narwhal is used to ensure that data submitted to during the consensus process is available, while Bullshark sets the standard for arranging that data, so the consensus engine is able to read it. Bullshark replaced Tusk as the primary consensus algorithm in August 2022 to reduce latency issues and ensure that validators with lower processing speeds could still contribute to the project.
Sui's Move language and parallel transaction execution work together to provide the blockchain with faster, more secure, and more efficient smart contract execution. Also, tt simplifies the development of smart contracts for developers, making it easier to expand access and functionality within the decentralized finance (DeFi) industry.
Sui's focus on instant transaction finality, reduced latency in smart contract deployment, and overall transaction speed sets it apart from other Layer-1 chains.
Aptos is a Layer-1 blockchain that also uses the Move programming language. It was launched on October 17, 2022, and promises people increased scalability, reliability, security, as well as usability.
Aptos Labs is the company behind the Aptos project, and they lead a diverse team of developers, engineers, and strategists headed by the two co-founders, Mo Shaikh and Avery Ching.
The Aptos blockchain can theoretically reach 160,000 transactions per second (TPS) while simultaneously maintaining security and reliability. It has several unique features that enable its impressive performance. These include:
Block-STM Technology is one of the revolutionary concepts that Aptos adopts to handle smart contracts efficiently. The Aptos blockchain engine relies on parallel execution to handle multiple transactions at once. To further improve efficiency, a collaborative scheduler works to prioritize certain transactions on the Aptos blockchain and handle essential validations efficiently. Ultimately, this is supposed to make up to 160,000 transactions to be processed simultaneously.
The Move programming language is natively integrated into the Aptos blockchain. Move is flexible enough to handle the unique needs of developers and is more secure than the average programming language. Move lets developers define custom resources that can’t be copied or discarded, making it much more difficult for malicious entities to control the Aptos blockchain.
Aptos comes with a formal verifier for smart contracts written in Move called the “Move prover,” which provides additional safeguards for contract invariants and behavior.
Aptos separates the consensus protocol and transaction ordering into two distinct processes. By using a Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) consensus protocol, Aptos can analyze individual states on-chain and then automatically update validators when necessary. This approach reduces latency and improves speed.
Aptos’ novel data model enables flexible key management and introduces hybrid custodial options. It also supports transaction transparency before signing and practical light client protocols. All these features provide additional safety and, overall, a more trustworthy user experience.
The team behind Aptos has implemented a pipelined and modular approach for the main stages of transaction processing, which has enabled the blockchain to achieve high throughput and low latency. This approach includes block validation, transaction validation, transaction execution, and state commitment.
Aptos blockchain boasts of unique features and innovations that make it a highly attractive option for both individuals and projects that require scalability, reliability, and security in their blockchain transactions. With its impressive performance, Aptos is fast becoming a popular choice in the blockchain space.
SUI vs APTOS: A Side-by-Side Comparison
Sui and Aptos are both relatively new, layer-1 blockchains developed by former Meta employees. They share many similarities in their goals to address the scalability and efficiency issues faced by the current generation of blockchain networks. However, a closer look at each blockchain reveals some differences.
Both Aptos and Sui use Move, a programming language based on Rust, to implement parallel execution and offer low latency. However, Sui has its own adapted version of the language, and its storage system is object-centric. Most elements on Sui, including addresses and transactions, are represented as objects.
Furthermore, Sui’s version of Move indicates when an object is owned, shared, mutable, or immutable. On the other hand, Aptos follows the standard design outlined in Diem's whitepaper and doesn’t indicate whether an object is owned, shared, mutable, or immutable.
Aptos utilizes a variant of the Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism called Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), which ensures high network security and fast transaction confirmations.
Sui, on the other hand, employs a Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), which emphasizes energy efficiency and decentralization. Sui uses an asynchronous consensus protocol called Narwhal and Bullshark, which allows for its version of independent and parallel execution of transactions.
Aptos uses a blockchain to record its decentralized ledger, while Sui’s distributed ledger is stored as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). Moreover, Aptos has a modular architecture that enables easy upgrades and customizations.
On the other hand, Sui focuses on a multi-layered architecture to separate the consensus, storage, and computation layers, allowing for improved scalability and flexibility in the network.
In terms of performance, Aptos had a slightly higher throughput in its testing phase than Sui, at 160,000 TPS. However, after Aptos' mainnet was released in October 2022, its TPS fell to a dismal rate of 4 TPS and currently runs at 7 TPS with a peak of 2,020 TPS (as of May 5, 2023).
Meanwhile, Sui's object-centric design facilitates parallel transactions, promising a high ceiling with theoretically unlimited TPS potential. Although designed for high speed, Sui's network is currently experiencing low throughput after its mainnet launch. Over the past 30 days, Sui has reached a peak of 348 TPS but is currently processing only 8 TPS as of May 5, 2023.
Efficiency and Security
Both Sui and Aptos are designed to offer low latency, parallel execution, and advanced security features, making them attractive options for businesses looking to build blockchain-based applications.
Specific Use Cases and Scenarios
While Sui and Aptos blockchains have many similarities, their differences make them suitable for different use cases. For example, Sui's object-centric design facilitates parallel transactions, which could be beneficial for large-scale applications. On the other hand, Aptos's modular architecture enables easy upgrades and customizations, making it an attractive option for businesses and projects that require more flexibility.
The Future of Blockchain Protocols and Move Language
Both Sui and Aptos have leveraged the Move language to create more efficient and scalable blockchain protocols. Blockchain protocols using the Move programming language will likely continue to gain popularity, particularly those that offer advanced security features, scalability, and flexibility.
As more businesses adopt blockchain technology, the demand for protocols like Sui and Aptos could increase, leading to blockchain improvements in regard to performance, efficiency, and security.
The emergence of the Move programming language has opened up opportunities for the creation of unique blockchain protocols that prioritize asset security and smart contract execution speed. Sui and Aptos are two such protocols that use the Move language, and they offer different solutions to existing blockchain problems.
Sui aims to solve the scalability problem, and its unique features, such as parallel transaction execution and the Sui consensus engine, enable instant settlements at a low cost. In contrast, Aptos blockchain focuses on providing low-cost, fast, and secure transactions through a user-friendly interface.
As Web3 technology continues to evolve, there will be more exciting projects that leverage the Move programming language, and learning about them can help you take advantage of new opportunities and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. Therefore, we encourage you to continue exploring and learning about blockchain technology, the Move language, and groundbreaking projects such as Sui and Aptos.